The problem from the SPE-9723-PA paper is a basic test for three-phase three-dimensional Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Odeh, A. 1981 Comparison of Solutions to a Three-Dimensional Black-Oil Reservoir Simulation Problem. JPT 33, 13-25. DOI:10.2118/9723-PA. We consider only case 2 of the comarative study with variable bubble-point pressure. The problem involves oil production from a three-layer initially undersaturated reservoir. Read more ...

The problem from the SPE-10489-PA paper is a test for three-phase Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Weinstein H.G. et al. 1986 Second comparative solution project: A three-phase coning study. J. Pet. Tech. 38(3): 345-353. DOI:10.2118/10489-PA . The problem involves oil production from saturated reservoir with gas cap. Initial oil and gas densities are nearly equal. There are 150 grid blocks in total (radial grid: 10*1*15). The porosity and permeability for every layer are given. Read more ...

The problem from the SPE-18741-PA paper is a test for modelling fractured petroleum reservoirs. The problem description can be found in: Firoozabadi, A., Thomas, L.K. 1989 Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Pet. Tech. 43(6). 710-764. DOI: 10.2118/18741-PA. It involves a 2D cross-section two-phase (water injection) or three-phase (depletion) study. In the case of water injection, the injection well is placed on the left and the production well is placed on the right. The oil displacement results in a rapid water breakthrough to the production well through the fractures media. Read more ...

The problem from the SPE-21221-MS paper is a test for modelling pressure drop in horizontal wells due to the wellbore friction. The problem description can be found in Nghiem, L. et al. 1991. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation. SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, 17-20 February, Anaheim, California DOI: 10.2118/21221-MS. This example involves production of hydrocarbons from a horizontal well where conning tendencies are important. Read more ...

The problem from the SPE-29110 paper is an extended test for three-phase three-dimensional Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Killough, J.E. 1995 Ninth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Reexamination of Black-Oil Simulation. 13th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, San Antonio, Feb 12-15, 1995 DOI:10.2118/29110-MS. The problem involves oil production from a dipping initially undersaturated reservoir. There are 9000 grid blocks in total (rectilinear grid: 24*25*15). Read more ...

The 1st model from the SPE-72469-PA paper is a two-phase immiscible dead oil-dry gas comparative study. The problem description can be found in: Cristie M.A. et al. 2001 Tenth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Comparison of Upscaling Techniques. SPE Res. Eval. Eng. 4(4):308-317. DOI: 10.2118/72469-PA. The problem involves a vertical cross-section with highly heterogeneous permeability distribution. Porosity distribution is uniform. Initially, the reservoir is filled with oil. There are two wells on opposite sides of the cross-section, completed in every layer. Read more ...

This example demonstrates MUFITS capabilities for modelling the multi-contact miscible displacement in porous media. Such modelling requires application of the compositional module of the simulator. This example shows how the simulator can be switched for using the compositional model, how the number of components is specified, and how the EoS coefficients can be loaded from the built-in library. The benchmark study involves a 1-D linear flow. At the initial moment of time the reservoir is saturated with the three-component hydrocarbon mixture of methane (CH_{4}), hexane (C_{6}H_{14}) and hexadecane (C_{16}H_{34}).
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This example demonstrates MUFITS capabilities for modelling the gravity changes and ground displacement. These options are applied in the 2-D axisymmetric study of magmatic gas flows during an unrest event at Campi Flegrei. This is a quite popular problem statement that formerly was considered by many authors. Here, we consider the problem statement most similar to that presented in Rinaldi et al. (2011). The problem includes an axisymmetric domain for modelling flows up to the depth of 1.5 km below the Solfatara crater. Read more ...

The egg model description used in this example can be found in: Jansen J.D. et al. 2014 The egg model: a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation. Geosci. Data J. 1. 192-195. DOI: 10.1002/gdj3.21. This two-phase problem involves oil production from a heterogeneous oil reservoir using waterflooding technique. There are 18553 active grid blocks in total. The permeability distribution is heterogeneous whereas the porosity distribution is uniform. There are 4 producers operating under constant bottom-hole pressure and 8 water injectors with a given injection rate. Read more ...

This example involves numerical solution of the discontinuity break-down problem for the heat conduction equation. The fluid flow is not involved in this simulation. The break-down problem is one-dimensional self-similar problem. At the initial moment of time the temperature distribution has a single discontinuity. The temperature distributions on either side of the discontinuity are uniform. The heat conduction results in the discontinuity smearing. We consider a column (tube) filled with impermeable rocks. Read more ...

This is the benchmark study 3.1 published in Class H. et al. A benchmark study on problems related to CO_{2} storage in geologic formations. Comput Geosci 2009, 13(4):409-434. DOI: 10.1007/s10596-009-9146-x. The problem is based on a geological model of the Johansen formation. The computational domain is an extracted part of the model. The lateral extension of the domain is approximately 9600*8900 m. The domain comprises 9 layers of grid blocks all representing the high permeable sandstones in the Johansen formation.
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This is an extension of the benchmark study 3.1 published in Class H. et al. A benchmark study on problems related to CO_{2} storage in geologic formations. Comput Geosci 2009, 13(4):409-434. DOI: 10.1007/s10596-009-9146-x. Instead of modelling a pure CO_{2} injection, we simulate injection of an impure gas consisting of 90% of CO_{2} and 10% of N_{2}. The injection gas should be regarded as a flue gas. The volume injection rate at the reservoir pressure and temperature is equal to that in the original study.
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This example concerns injection of CO_{2} into a natural gas storage reservoir aiming at both the sequestration of CO_{2} and the cushion gas substitution. The presented study involves a rather straightforward injection strategy and well pattern. We use a synthetic reservoir model that includes a structural trap formed by an anticline. The reservoir is buried at the depth of 1000 m. It is a high-permeability layer of uniform thickness of 25 m. There are two groups of vertical wells placed in the circular patterns.
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This example is from the SPE-12099-PA paper: Pruess K. et al. 1984 Thermal effects of reinjection in geothermal reservoirs with major vertical fractures. J. Pet. Tech. 36(10): 1567-1578. DOI:10.2118/12099-PA . The problem concerns non-isothermal flow of water through a vertical fracture induced by fluid production and cold water injection. Heat exchange between fracture and confining impermeable rocks is simulated in full by introducing impermeable grid blocks in which only heat conduction equation is solved. There are 2400 grid blocks in total (rectilinear grid: 12*20*10). Read more ...

This example is from the SPE-10509-PA paper: Pruess K. et al. 1985 A practical method for modelling fluid and heat flow in fractures porous media. SPE J. 25(1): 14-26. DOI:10.2118/10509-PA. The 2D areal problem concerns non-isothermal flow of water and steam in fractured reservoir. The fluid transport occurs only through the fractures, whereas the matrix blocks are impermeable. At the initial moment of time the reservoir is saturated with hot water at 300 C and at high pressure above water boiling pressure. The fluid extraction though the production wells results in the pressure drop down and water boiling. Read more ...

This problem demonstrates MUFITS capabilities in realistic engineering-like simulations of petroleum reservoirs. The domain is a small region of an oil field operated under pressure depletion. This is a two-phase problem without hydrocarbon gas. The reservoir model comprises 6036 active grid blocks and 10 wells. There are 4 layers with different rock properties, fluid properties and saturation functions in every layer. The relative permeability and capillary pressure end-point scaling option is used to match the history production rates. Read more ...

This example is based on the 10th SPE comparative solution project reservoir. We consider the flow only in the 50th layer of the reservoir. Initially the layer is saturated by pure water with uniform distribution of temperature. The initial distribution of pressure is a linear function along the y-axis. The two boundaries of the reservoir which are parallel to the y-axis are considered as fully insulated. We fix the initial values of pressure and temperature at one boundary parallel to the x-axis and we inject pure heated CO_{2} through the second boundary.
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This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2004. Code Intercomparison Builds Confidence in Numerical Simulation Models for Geologic Disposal of CO_{2}. Energy, 29(9-10): 1431-1444. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.077. The problem concerns radial flow form a CO_{2} injection well into a brine formation.
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This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2002. Multiphase flow dynamics during CO_{2} injection into saline aquifers// Envirom. Geol. 42, 282-295. DOI:10.1007/s00254-001-0498-3. This 1D problem concerns a CO_{2} leakage scenario. A vertical flow of supercritical CO_{2} from a deep formation along a fault zone is considered. The salinity of brine is neglected. The flow results in a vertical displacement of water by CO_{2} over an early period of time and complete evaporation of water into gas phase at a later time.
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This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2004. Code Intercomparison Builds Confidence in Numerical Simulation Models for Geologic Disposal of CO_{2}. Energy, 29(9-10): 1431-1444. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.077. This is a sketch scenario of CO_{2} injection at the Sleipner field. The problem involves a buoyancy-driven flow caused by injection of supercritical CO_{2} at the bottom of a formation buried at 1 km depth. The formation contains high-permeable sandstones and thin shale interlayers.
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This example demonstrates MUFITS capabilities for modelling the brittle-ductile transition. The example requires application of the options for modelling of the plastic behaviour of rocks at elevated temperatures and hydraulic fracturing at elevated pressures. A cross-sectional model of the Earth crust is considered. A quite high geothermic gradient causes hydrothermal convection in the shallow brittle zone of the crust. From below the convection is limited by the brittle-ductile transition. Read more ...

These examples demonstrate the simulator capabilities for modelling fluid flow in a compacting porous medium. The employed model differs from previous formulations by considering fluid transport in the frame of reference moving with the solid phase. Using the numerical implementation of the proposed model, we simulate magmatic fluid transport in the Earth's upper crust. We account for the thermal softening of rocks, the plastic deformation of the solid matrix through decompaction weakening, and realistic fluid properties in a wide range of depths. Read more ...

This example demonstrates MUFITS capabilities for numerical modelling of the mechanical (hydrodynamic) dispersion in porous media. The longitudinal and transverse dispersion of the solute and temperature can be simulated together using the same simulation option. The input data to 4 benchmark examples which allow exact solutions are provided and are used for validation of the simulation option. Read more ...

This example demonstrates a generic method for the optimal well placement. A synthetic 3D reservoir model of an oil field is considered. The heterogeneous model consists of 3 lithological units and 12600 grid blocks. This is a two-phase study because the reservoir pressure is assumed higher than that in the bubble point. The primary recovery mechanism is the water drive. The placements of six wells must be found that maximize oil production over 10 years period. The wells are completed through the whole depth of the reservoir and are operated at a given oil production rate with the BHP constrain. Since the constraint can be reached for every well, the optimal placement is not obvious. Read more ...

These examples demonstrate the possibility of MUFITS linking with user-supplied shared libraries, i.e., EoS-modules, for the phase equilibria and other fluid properties prediction. Both explicit correlations and tabulated data for the fluid parameters can be implemented in the libraries. An iterative approach, which for example is based on the phase equilibria calculation through the Gibbs energy minimisation, can also be used in the EoS-module. A considerable effort has been undertaken to minimise the number of program procedures exported by the shared library. This should facilitate and ease usage of the software extension by scientific community. Read more ...

The example-H4 concerns simulation of CO_{2} injection in the Johansen formation using a real-scale geological model of the formation. We use the “sector model with heterogeneous rock properties”, which can be downloaded at www.sintef.no/Projectweb/MatMorA/Downloads/Johansen/. The model comprises 11 layers of grid blocks. There are 5 vertical faults in the model.
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- 1st SPE Comparative Study
- 2nd SPE Comparative Study
- 6th SPE Comparative Study
- 7th SPE Comparative Study
- 9th SPE Comparative Study
- 10th SPE Comparative Study (model 1)
- Miscible displacement of oil
- Modelling ground displacement and gravity changes
- The Egg Model
- Heat Conduction
- Benchmark study for CO
_{2}storage (Example-H3) - Flue gas injection into a saline aquifer
- Cushion gas substitution with CO
_{2} - Heat sweep in a vertical fracture
- Five-spot geothermal production/injection
- Realistic model 1 (Black-oil Two-phase)
- CO
_{2}injection in the 10th SPE reservoir (Example-H2) - Radial flow from a CO
_{2}injection well - CO
_{2}discharge along a fault zone - CO
_{2}injection in a 2D layered brine formation - Modelling the brittle-ductile transition
- Fluid flow in a compacting porous medium
- Mechanical dispersion in porous media
- Optimization of well placement
- User-supplied EoS-modules
- CO
_{2}injection in Johansen formation (Example-H4)